Chemical weapons are poisonous substances and their means of use on the battlefield.

Chemical weapons are poisonous substances and their means of use on the battlefield.

Therefore, in my opinion, such a transition should be made as soon as possible. Of course, sooner or later, economic factors will force us to abandon the use of oil and gas, but the economic need will arise much later than the environmental one.

references

V. Volodin, P. Khazanovsky « Energy, the twenty-first century ». S. Yudasin « Energy: problems and hopes ». Video materials of the TV channel « Discovery ». Componts Reference Collection, 1996.

04/27/2011

Classification and effects of chemical warfare poisons. Abstract

Chemical munitions are fictional narrative ideas distinguished by the following characteristics: the stability of the used PR; the nature of the physiological effects of PR on the human body; means and methods of use; tactical purpose; speed of action

Chemical weapons are poisonous substances and their means of use on the battlefield. The basis of the damaging effects of chemical weapons are toxic substances.

Toxic substances (ORs) are chemical compounds that are used to harm unprotected manpower or reduce its combat effectiveness.

According to their striking properties, PRs differ from other weapons:

they are able to penetrate with the air into various buildings, tanks and other military equipment and hit the people in them; they can maintain their impact in the air, on the ground and in various objects for a long time; spreading in large volumes of air and over large areas, they affect all people in their sphere of activity without means of protection; PR vapors can be spread by wind over long distances from areas of direct use of chemical weapons.

Chemical munitions are distinguished by the following characteristics:

stability of the used PR; the nature of the physiological effects of PR on the human body; means and methods of use; tactical purpose; speed of action.

Stability. Depending on how long the use of PR can retain its striking effect, they are divided into:

stable unstable

The resistance of toxic substances depends on the physical and chemical properties, methods of application, meteorological conditions and the nature of the area in which these substances are used.

Persistent PRs retain their striking effect from several hours to several days and even weeks. They evaporate very slowly and change little under the action of air or water.

Unstable PRs retain their striking effect in the open for several minutes, and in forests and buildings for tens of minutes.

Physiological action. According to the nature of the effects on the human body, toxic substances are divided into five groups:

1.neuro-paralytic action;

2.skin-abscess action;

3. generally poisonous;

4. suffocating;

5. psychochemical action.

OP neuro-paralytic action causes damage to the central nervous system. The main purpose of using such PR is to quickly and massively impress people with a large number of deaths.

Leather abscesses cause damage mainly through the skin, and when used in the form of aerosols or vapors – also through the respiratory system.

OR of general toxic action strike through respiratory organs and cause the termination of oxidative processes in body tissues.

suffocating PR most affects the lungs.

PR of psychochemical action have appeared quite recently. These toxic substances, affecting the central nervous system, can temporarily disrupt normal mental activity or cause mental disorders such as temporary blindness, deafness, fear, limitation of motor functions of some organs. One of the features of these substances is that for fatal damage the dose should be 1000 times higher than for temporary effects.

Means and methods of application of PR

The main tasks of the use of toxic substances:

to strike a living force in order to destroy it or temporarily disable it, for this purpose use OR of neuro-paralytic action; to suppress manpower in order to temporarily reduce its combat effectiveness; this is achieved by the use of skin-abscess and neuro-paralytic action; to weaken the enemy for a considerable period of time through the use of stable PR; to contaminate the terrain to force the enemy to leave positions or make it difficult for him to move through a certain area.

To perform these tasks can be used:

missiles; aviation; artillery; chemical explosives.

Characteristics of the main toxic substances

PR includes the following chemical compounds:

sarin soman V-gases mustard hydrocyanic acid phosgene dimethylamide lysergic acid

Sarin is a colorless and odorless liquid that belongs to the class of neuro-paralytic toxins. Sarin contaminates the air with vapors and gases, ie is unstable PR. However, sometimes it can be used in liquid-droplet form to infect equipment and terrain. In this case, the stability of sarin can be: in summer – a few hours, in winter – a few days.

Sarin causes damage through the respiratory system, gastrointestinal tract, and can act through the skin without causing damage. The degree of sarin damage depends on its concentration in the air and the time spent in the contaminated atmosphere.

As a result of the action of sarin, the victim develops salivation, heavy sweating, dizziness, loss of consciousness, paralysis and, as a result of poisoning, death.

Soman is a colorless and odorless liquid that belongs to the class of neuro-paralytic PR. Its properties are very similar to sarin. The resistance of zoman is slightly higher than that of sarin, it acts on the human body almost 10 times stronger.

V-gases are low-volatile liquids with a very high boiling point, so their stability is much greater than the stability of sarin. Like sarin and soman, they belong to the class of neuro-paralytic PR.

V-gases are 100 – 1000 times more toxic than other ORs of neuro-paralytic action. They are characterized by high activity when exposed through the skin, especially in the liquid-droplet state: even a small drop of V-gas that gets on human skin causes death.

Mustard gas is a dark brown oily liquid with a characteristic odor reminiscent of garlic or mustard. Belongs to the class of leather-abscess PR.

From the infected areas mustard evaporates slowly: its resistance on the ground in summer reaches 14 days, in winter – months or more.

Mustard acts on the body in different ways: in liquid-droplet and vapor form it affects the skin and eyes, in vapor – the respiratory tract and lungs, but if it gets with food and water, it affects the digestive system. The effect of mustard gas is not manifested immediately, but after some time, which is called the period of latent action.

Mustard drops on the skin are quickly absorbed, and after 4-8 hours, itchy red spots appear instead. At the end of the first day, small bubbles form, which then merge into single large bubbles filled with amber-yellow liquid, which eventually becomes cloudy.

This process is accompanied by an increase in temperature. After 2 – 3 days, the blisters burst, there are signs that do not heal for a long time. If the ulcer becomes infected, the healing period can be 5-6 months.

The organs of vision are affected by vapor mustard gas even at the lowest concentrations and duration of 10 minutes. The period of latent action lasts from 2 to 6 hours, then there are signs of damage: a feeling of sand in the eyes, fear of light, tearing. The disease lasts 10 – 15 days, after which recovery occurs.

Damage to the organs of trawling is possible when eating food poisoned with irip. In the worst cases of poisoning after a period of latent action (30 – 60 minutes) there are signs of damage: chest pain, nausea, vomiting, general weakness, headache. In the future, the process progresses: there is paralysis, severe weakness, exhaustion. After 3 to 12 days, deaths are possible due to complete exhaustion and exhaustion.

Hydrocyanic acid is a colorless liquid with an odor reminiscent of bitter almonds. Hydrocyanic acid evaporates quickly and acts only in the vapor state. Belongs to the OP of general toxic action.

Typical signs of hydrocyanic acid damage are: metallic taste in the mouth, throat irritation, dizziness, weakness, nausea. Then unbearable shortness of breath, slows the pulse, poisons the consciousness, there are sharp convulsions.

Seizures do not last long, they are replaced by complete muscle relaxation, fever, respiratory depression and its subsequent cessation. Cardiac activity after respiratory arrest continues for another 3 – 7 minutes.

Phosgene is a colorless volatile liquid with the smell of rotten hay or rotten apples. Acts on the body in a vaporous state. It belongs to the class of suffocating PR.

Phosgene has a latent period of 4 – 6 hours; its duration depends on the concentration of phosgene in the air, the time spent in the contaminated atmosphere, the human condition, the cooling of the body.

Inhaling phosgene, a person experiences a sweet unpleasant taste in the mouth, then there is a cough, dizziness and general weakness. After leaving the contaminated air, the signs of poisoning pass quickly.

But in 4 – 6 hours at the poisoned there is a sharp deterioration:

lips, cheeks, nose are blue; there is a general weakness, headache, shortness of breath, severe shortness of breath, unbearable cough with a discharge of liquid, pink sputum, which indicates the development of pulmonary edema.

The process of phosgene poisoning reaches a culminating phase within 2 – 3 days. With a favorable course of the disease, the victim will gradually begin to improve his health, and in the worst cases – death.

Lysergic acid dimethylamide is a toxic substance of psychochemical action.

Once in the human body, nausea and dilation of the pupils appear after 3 minutes, followed by hallucinations of hearing and vision, which last for several hours.

literature

VV Simonenko, AI Krotov « Civil Defense of the World ». A. Gorbatsevich « Civil Defense ». Rozanov « Safety of life ».

04/26/2011

The structure of the Earth’s crust: lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere. Abstract

The hydrosphere, or water shell of the Earth, is its seas and oceans, ice caps of the polar regions, rivers, lakes and groundwater. The Earth’s air envelope and its atmosphere are one of the most important living conditions.